CO2 carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) technologies are discussed from the chemical engineering perspective of their role in a future low-carbon scenario. We highlighted that current techno-economic assessment procedures have limits in predicting the role of CCU technologies. There is a need to pass from current 1st-generation power-to-X technologies to synthesise e-fuels to the 2nd-generation solar fuel technologies. The hard-to-abate sector, particularly steel and cement production, is also shortly analysed, remarking on the necessity to overcome current approaches starting from analysing the critical aspects limiting feasibility and economics.
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